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Clinical and demographic profile of end stage kidney disease hemodialysis patients at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali

Authors: Bonane, A., Sebatunzi, O., Bitunguhari, L., & Rickard, J.
BACKGROUND: End stage kidney disease (ESKD) has become a major public health problem and is associated with considerable co-morbidity and mortality. In Rwanda, the extent, and the distribution of ESKD have not been reported despite provision of dialysis services. This paper describes the clinical and demographic characteristics of ESKD patients in at a tertiary referral hospital in Rwanda.
METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study of ESKD hemodialysis patients treated at a tertiary referral hospital from January 2014 to December 2017, start of hemodialysis services to date. Demographic and clinical data were obtained regarding all eligible patients treated. Descriptive statistics were reported using frequency and percent for categorical data; median and Interquartile range (IQR) for continuous data. Analysis of survivors versus non-survivors was performed using Chi-square test for categorical variables and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous, nonparametric variables.
RESULTS: Over a three-year period, there were 64 patients with ESKD. Median age was 48 years (IQR: 35 to 57.5) and 42 (66%) were male. Edema (n=50, 78%) and anuria (n=40, 63%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Underlying comorbidities of ESKD included hypertension (n= 50, 78%), diabetes (n=24, 38%). Urea (n=52, 81%) and creatinine (n=57, 89%) were elevated in most patients.
CONCLUSION: ESKD is the leading cause of hemodialysis in young adults who would otherwise be contributing to the national development. It is a challenging to clearly establish etiologies as the majority present with more than one comorbidity. Hence healthcare providers should be proactive in prevention and prompt management of chronic kidney disease.
Link: pdf (bioline.org.br)