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Challenges in the Recognition and Management of Acute Kidney Injury by Hospitals in Resource-Limited Settings

Authors: Grace Igiraneza, Vincent Dusabejambo, Fredric O.Finklestein, Asghar Rastegar
Abstract:
Introduction
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly among hospitalized patients. Successful strategies for the prevention and management of AKI in these countries are dependent on the capacity of primary care centers to provide optimal initial management of patients at risk for this disorder.
Methods
From December 2018 to February 2019, using mixed methods, we assessed hospital capacity and the knowledge of clinicians relevant to the prevention, diagnosis, and management of AKI in Rwanda. A checklist based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines and clinical vignette-based assessment tool were used to assess hospital capacity and provider knowledge base, respectively. Data were analyzed using stata 13 with findings reported as simple frequencies or means with standard deviation. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors associated with a higher knowledge score among clinicians.
Results
Ten hospitals and 193 health care providers from sites throughout Rwanda participated in the survey. Surveyed hospitals were equipped with basic general medical equipment but were deficient in diagnostic tools and medical supplies that would allow the diagnosis and nondialytic management of AKI. Although 20% of the hospitals could offer hemodialysis services, peritoneal dialysis services were nonexistent. With regard to knowledge base, the health care providers demonstrated significant deficiencies in the diagnosis and management of AKI. The mean knowledge score for all health providers was 6.3 (±1.5) of a maximum of 11, with a mean (±SD) score for doctors, nurses, and midwives of 6.3 ± 2.05, 6.4 ± 1.3, and 6.08 ± 1.2, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the length of clinical experience and age of the respondents were significantly associated with participants’ knowledge score.
Conclusion
This study documents significant barriers to providing optimal management of AKI in primary health care settings in Rwanda, a resource-limited setting. These include lack of specialized medical personnel, significant knowledge gaps among primary health care providers, suboptimal diagnostic capacity, and limited treatment options for detection and management of AKI.
Link: Challenges in the Recognition and Management of Acute Kidney Injury by Hospitals in Resource-Limited Settings - Kidney International Reports (kireports.org)

 

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